本文摘要:Another week, another wave of cyber alarm in America. On Wednesday both the New York Stock Exchange and United Airlines suspended activity for several hours due to mysterious computing problems, while the Wall Street Journal’s website brie


Another week, another wave of cyber alarm in America. On Wednesday both the New York Stock Exchange and United Airlines suspended activity for several hours due to mysterious computing problems, while the Wall Street Journal’s website briefly went down. All three insisted that the outages reflected technical hitches, not malicious attack. But many are anxious after past assaults on mighty American companies and agencies.上周,美国纳敲了又一波网络警报。上周三,纽约证交所(NYSE)和美国牵头航空(United Airlines)都因为谜样的计算机故障停止运转数小时,《华尔街日报》(WSJ)网站也一段时间经常出现无法关上的问题。以上三家机构都否认,服务中断是因为技术故障,而非蓄意反击。

但此前一些强劲的美国企业和机构遭到的反击让许多人回应深感情绪。In February Anthem, an insurance company, revealed that cyber hackers had stolen information on 80m customers. The Washington-based Office of Personnel Management said cyber hackers had taken data on millions of federal employees. Companies ranging from retailers to banks have been attacked, too.今年2月,保险公司Anthem透露,网络黑客盗取了其8000万名客户的信息。坐落于华盛顿的美国人事管理局(Office of Personnel Management)回应,网络黑客盗取了数百万联邦雇员的资料。

从零售商到银行等各类企业也遭了网络攻击。On Wednesday — just as the NYSE was frozen — Cambridge university and Lloyds insurance group released a report suggesting that if a cyber assault breached America’s electrical grid, this could create $1tn dollars of damage. A few minutes later, James Comey, the FBI director, told Congress that it is struggling to crack encryption tools used by jihadis. In May, Mr Comey said Islamic terrorists were “waking up” to the idea of using malware to attack critical infrastructure. It is scary stuff.上周三,就在纽交所因故障停止交易的时候,剑桥大学(University of Cambridge)和保险集团劳合社(Lloyds)公布了一篇报告,称之为如果有一次网络攻击突破了美国的电网,将给美国带给1万亿美元的损失。几分钟后,美国联邦调查局(FBI)局长詹姆斯科米(James Comey)告诉他国会,FBI很难密码圣战分子用于的加密工具。科米在5月份回应,伊斯兰恐怖分子用于恶意软件反击关键基础设施的意识“正在唤醒”。

感叹可怕的事情。The key issue that investors, politicians and voters need to ponder is not simply who might be the next target, but whether Washington has the right system in place to handle these attacks. The answer is almost certainly No.关键问题是,投资者、政界人士和选民不仅必须考虑到谁可能会是下一个目标,还必须考虑到华盛顿否已部署好需要应付这些反击的适合机制。答案完全毫无疑问是驳斥的。

On paper, there is no shortage of resources; earlier this year, for example, President Barack Obama earmarked $14bn for the cyber fight. But the key problem now is not so much a lack of cash — but co-ordination: as fear spreads, a bewildering alphabet soup of different agencies and task forces is leaping into cyber battle, often with little collaboration. The institution that is supposed to be in charge of security threats is the Department of Homeland Security. But its skills are viewed with scepticism by military officials. The Pentagon has its own cyber warriors, as do America’s intelligence agencies.名义上,资源并不紧缺;比如,今年早些时候,美国总统巴拉克奥巴马(Barack Obama)登录了140亿美元作为为网络战专项资金。但现在的关键问题,与其说是缺少资金,不如说是缺少协作;随着不安蔓延出去,让人眼花缭乱的众多有所不同机构和尤其行动组争相投身网络战,而它们往往很少相互协作。

理论上负责管理应付安全性威胁的不应是美国国土安全部(Department of Homeland Security)。但军方官员对国土安全部的技能所持猜测观点。五角大楼(Pentagon)有自己的网络战士,美国的情报机构也是如此。

The White House has tried to force these bodies to work together. Separately, civilian agencies such as Nuclear Regulatory Commission started holding discreet meetings with each other last autumn on cyber issues too. But collaboration across sectors is patchy. “The level of readiness in different agencies varies enormously,” admits a senior Washington figure at the centre of these efforts. Add in private sector bodies and the picture is even worse: not only is the Pentagon wary of sharing data with, say, the Chamber of Commerce, but companies are often terrified of revealing attacks to each other.白宫企图被迫这些机构合作。去年秋天,美国核管理委员会(NRC)等非军事机构之间早已开始高调地就网络攻击问题举办会议。

但跨部门之间的协作情况参差不齐。“有所不同机构的意愿差距很大,”一名主持人强化协作希望的华盛顿高级官员否认。如果再行算上私营部门实体,情况就变得更糟了:不仅五角大楼对于与美国商会(U.S. Chamber of Commerce)共享数据保持警惕,企业之间一般来说也惧怕相互透漏受到网络攻击的情况。Is there a solution? One sensible response might be to create a new agency to provide a central focus for the cyber fight. There is precedent for that; most Washington regulators emerged in response to a new threat. The Securities and Exchange Commission, for example, was created after the 1929 stock market crash; the Food and Drug Administration appeared after scandals over dangerous medicines. A second option might be to relaunch the DHS to focus on the cyber fight. It could, for example, be named the Department of Cyber and Homeland Security.有解决问题方法吗?一种合理对此有可能是正式成立一个重点应付网络战的新机构。


比如,国土安全部可以被重新命名为网络和国土安全部。Either way, Washington needs to answer the question that Henry Kissinger once posed in relation to Europe: in a crisis: “Who do I call?” Some countries have found ways: Australia has impressive levels of co-ordination between the public and private sector over cyber defences. But as the sense of tribalism builds in Washington, the sad truth is that it may take something — like a really big crisis — before anyone can bang bureaucratic heads together in an effective way. Better just hope that this “something” will not be too devastating; such as a real attack on the transport sector and markets.无论采行哪种方式,华盛顿都必须问亨利基辛格(Henry Kissinger)曾多次对欧洲明确提出的那个问题:不妙时刻,“我该打给谁”?一些国家早已寻找了方法:澳大利亚的公共和私营部门在网络防卫方面的协作程度令人印象深刻印象。




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